The proportion of the population over 65 years of age is increasing steadily in most industrialized countries. In the United States the proportion of elderly people has risen from four percent in 1900 to 11 % in 1978, and is projected to be 14% by the year 2000. The occurrence of debilitating chronic diseases in the elderly increases with each additional year. These diseases, along with the natural loss of tissue function that occurs throughout adult life, impose a heavy burden on the health care system. Nutri- tion plays an important etiologic role in many of these degenerative changes. Conse- quently, the aging segment of the population presents a challenge to the nutrition scientist, who should be able to recommend optimal intakes of nutrients to minimize the functional losses associated with aging and to optimize the health of those already elderly. This sixth volume in the series Human Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise provides a conspectus of the various interactions of nutrition with the aging process and a comprehensive survey of current knowledge of the amounts of individual nutrients needed by the elderly. The volume begins with a general survey of the multifaceted relationship of nutrition to aging, followed by four chapters on how nutrition can affect age-related changes in selected body functions. The next six chapters cover the avail- able evidence regarding the needs of the elderly for dietary energy, protein, calcium, trace elements, vitamins, and fiber.
Survival of extremely premature neonates has improved significantly following the advances in neonatal intensive care. Extrauterine growth restriction is a serious issue in this population. Nutritional exposures during critical period of life influence the individual's risk of disease throughout life. Nutritional deficit and poor growth are associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairment, short stature and metabolic disorders in extremely preterm neonates. Optimising nutrition in the early postnatal life of the preterm neonate is therefore a priority. However this is easier said than done considering the frequency of feed intolerance, fear of necrotising enterocolitis, and the hesitancy in adopting an aggressive approach to parenteral nutrition in this population. Some of the finest researchers in the field have come together to provide the clinical perspective on the A to Z of nutrition in the preterm neonate in simple and clear fashion in this book.
The role of nutrition in neoplasia has been of longstanding concern. The subject was addressed by investigators in the first decade of this century, but was dropped. Vigorous attention was paid to this area of oncology in the 1940s, primarily due to the efforts of Dr. A. Tannenbaum at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago and the group at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. However, interest waned again until the 1970s when the question of diet and cancer was addressed and it has since been at the forefront of cancer research. The present volume (7) of Human Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise summarizes current knowledge in the area of nutrition and cancer. The first chapter is an overview written by John Higginson, whose contribution to understanding of cancer and nutrition spans several decades. The next essays cover epidemiology and physiology. The ensuing chapters address, in tum, those dietary factors relating to nutrition and cancer, namely, carbohydrates, protein, fat, cholesterol, calories, lipotropics, fiber, fruits and vegetables, vitamins, and alcohol. In a field moving as rapidly as this one is now, we can expect to miss a few late-breaking developments, but generally, the literature has been well covered through some time in 1988. Work relating to the effects of diet on oncogenes is in its very early development and has not been addressed as an entity per se.
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